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Full text of "The Durham patent system of screw-joint iron house-drainage : manufactured by the Durham House Drainage Co. of York ..."

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C. W. Dt'RHAM, C. E. 

Pres. and Gen. Manager 



H. C. Vail, 

Vice- Pres. and Treas. 



The 




Patent System 



01 



Screw- Joint 
Iron Honse Draina 




MANUFACTURED SOLELY BY THE 




Durham House Drainage Qo. 

OF NtW YORK. 
(Under the control rind management of Members of the 

America* ty of Civil Engineer* ,) 

158-160 West 27th Street, New York. 

40 Boylston St. (Hotel Felham, Room 3) Boston. 



AND 



E. BaggOt, Madison St. and Fifth Ave. Chicago, 

(For Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa t Minnesota, Nebraska, 

Dakota, and Northern Michigan.) 



At a meeting of the New York Academy of Medicine, 
Dr. John S. Billings concluded an address as follows: 

" The real difficulty seems to me to be, not that the resources 
of sanitary science and engineering are not sufficient to secure 
safe plumbing, but that the people at large, who are willing and 
able to pay for good work, do ?iot know to whom to apply to get 
it. 



•J 



THE DE VlNNE PRESS- 



Durham System of House Drainage. 3 



"Drainage" and "Plumbing." 

The distinction to be made between these terms is this: 

DRAINAGE includes the drains, soil-pipes, waste- 
pipes (from basins, baths, sinks, etc.), and trap ventilating 
pipes (for prevention of siphonage).* 

PLUMBING includes hot and cold water circulation 
pipes, and the setting and attaching of fixtures. , 

A permanently perfect system of drainage is 
a vital necessity. 

Defective plumbing causes annoyance and expense, 

but may not be detrimental to health. 

This Company makes a "specialty of constructing house drainage; 
by confining attention to one subject we have been able to increase 
(lie efficiency of the Durham System from year to year, and to reduce 
the cost fully one-half since its first introduction in 1879. 

Drainage is of primary importance. If buildings 
are furnished with the Durham System the balance of the 
plumbing can be safely intrusted to local plumbers. 

Submit plans to us for an "estimate of cost before 
letting any contracts. If the expenditure for plumbing 
must be limited, curtail the amount rather than accept 
work of inferior quality. 

Drainage system in new buildings should be 
placed in position about the time the roof is put on. 



*Sce explanatory engraving, pages 16-17. 




DURHAM DRAINAGE FITTINGS 

are made with an interior shoulder (as shown in the 
cut above) securing a flush inner surface. Ordinary 
steam fittings have an interior depression (as below) 
and are not suitable for drainage purposes. 




>^\NX\XVv\>JCH 



Durham System of House Drainage. 5 



The Durham System 

may be broadly described as a combination of scientific 
design, proper materials, and correct mechanical construc- 
tion, — a common-sense application of obvious means to secure 
a result of vital importance. 

The design of the work, the materials used, and the 
workmanship employed are an entire departure from the 
ordinary plumbing practice. 

The result attained is a system of pipes which are inde- 
pendent of the building for support, which cannot be cracked 
or broken, and whose joints are permanently gas-tight beyond 

the shadow of a doubt. 

Proper mechanical construction is the foundation 
of good drainage. The Durham System is a drainage 
apparatus constructed with wrought-iron (steam) pipe and 
heavy cast-iron fittings of special shapes, screwed together. 
This apparatus, when erected in a building, is steam-tight, 
elastic under pressure, and at all points absolutely invulner- 
able; it will last, unimpaired, as long as any building will 
stand — without any outlay for repairs. 

PATENTED. — The Durham System is fully covered by 
patents. No patent could be obtained on the use of wrought-iron 
pipe, or screw joints, for drainage purposes; but the combination of 
wrought-iron pipe and special screwed fittings, which constitute a 
"new and improved " drainage apparatuses patentable. The cost of 
the Durham System to the public, however, is no greater for the 
patents. They were secured for protection, and are not used for 
extortion. 

Durham fittings are manufactured solely by this 
Company, and cannot be purchased elsewhere. Imitations 
of the Durham System, constructed partly with ordinary 
steam fittings and other foreign materials, are occasionally 
palmed off on unsuspecting and too-credulous customers. 
Order your drainage direct from this Company 
or its authorized agents. 







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Durham System of House Drainage. 7 




Advantages. 



Joints : The screw threads on the pipes and in the 
fittings are cut by powerful machines, run by steam power, 
to standard gauge, so that they exactly correspond. The 
threads are tapering, so that the further the pipe enters the 
fitting the tighter becomes the joint between the two. The 
threads are first covered with a thick paste of red lead and 
oil and the pipe then screwed home by means of steam - 
fitters' chain tongs, by which a man can exert a powerful 
leverage. This work requires no skill — merely strength 
and it is done in a moment. A laborer can make a tighter 
scr W joint in one minute than a plumber with his materials 
could make in ('tie hour. 

Exposing Pipes : Pipes should not be buried under- 
ground (within the building), nor hidden within the walls. 
It is a great satisfaction to be able at any time to examine 
drains and soil-pipes without the expense of tearing up. 
\\ ith the Durham System there is absolutely no objection 
to their being in plain sight everywhere; there are no joints 
between floor and ceiling; the pipes can be painted or 
bronzed, and do not betray their use or purpose in any 
manner. They simply look like steam pipes, — which they 
actually are, — and the public have long been accustomed 
to the presence of steam-heating pipes. In the New- York 
Cancer Hospital 3000 feet of our drainage pipes are in 
plain view, except where they pass through the floors. At 
the School of Mines, Columbia College, the store of Messrs. 
Ilrooks Brothers, 2 2d Street and Broadway, the De Vinne 
Pr and many other buildings, the Durham System is 

similarly arranged. 

Smaller Pipes can be used because of the absolute 
interior smoothness, — one inch in diameter less than is safe 
for plumbers' work. This effects a considerable saving. 
One 3-inch pipe serves two houses at Pullman. 
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Di-rham System of House Drainage. 9 



Changes and Additions of fixtures are easily and 
skillfully made, at very small expense, without disturbing 
neighboring joints. We have inserted water-closet fittings 
in the middle of soil-pipe stacks, one hundred feet high, at 

a trifling expense. 

Hand-holes, closed by screw plugs, are provided at 
every change of direction. The owner, with the aid of a 
wrench, can examine the interior condition of his drains, or 
remove an obstruction, without incurring a plumber's bill of 

expenses. 

Tests can be made conveniently when the Durham Sys- 
tem is finished, by screwing plugs into all openings and 
turning on steam, or filling the System with water to the tops 
of soil-pipes. No other than a pressure test of drainage is 
of any value. 

OPPOSITION 

TO THE INTRODUCTION OF THE DURHAM SYSTEM. 

With some honorable exceptions, the plumbing trade generally have 
vigorously opposed the introduction of the Durham System. This was 
to be expected, as innovations are objectionable to every well-established 
line of trade; and it is not in human nature to cordially welcome a loss 
or disturbance of business. The principal reason alleged for their op- 
position to a system of plumbing which is universally conceded by all 
disinterested persons to be the best possible, is that wrought-iron pipe 
is 11-1 uitable for the purposes of drainage, because itrustsjaster than 
out-. This is really a fact when both kinds of pipe are unprotected 

against corrosion. Tests have been made showing that cast-iron, un- 
protected, lasts, under certain conditions, one-fourth longer than wrought- 
iron Hut when properly asphalted, painted, or oxidized, wrought-iron 
nine is now preferred by engineers for many uses for which cast-iron 
was formerly supposed to be indispensable; just as wrought-iron bridges 
have super led cast-iron. The plumbers use arguments which were 
current ten years ago, and would create the impression that wrought-iron 
drains and soil-pipes will rust out in a few months, whereas asphalted 
pipe has an official record of 25 years without appreciable decay! Fur- 
therm mc, plumbers themselves use wrought-iron pipe for gas and 
water; and with the growing practice of exposing, instead of hiding, 
drainage pipes, the owner can at any time make a hammer test of his 
pipes. U after 30 or 40 years a piece should be found rusted through, 
the cost of replacing it with a new piece would be trifling. 

Thousands Of miles of wrought-iron pipe are now in use, 
buried in the ground, for the conveyance of petroleum, natural gas, 
water, and steam. // cast-iron pipe were better, would it not be used, 

The economy of usin£ a class of work which will require no 
ouila v for repairs'm a lifetime will be apparent to those who build wisely; 
n hile the superior hygienic conditions to be secured will appeal to those 
who recognize the importance of shutting out sewer air from their 
houses.